China Building VET Teaching Capacity

The Chinese State Council is aiming to see 50% of VET teachers with dual teaching capabilities (theoretical and applied) by 2022, however there remains a significant challenge in reaching this target.


China recruits 9.2million students each year through its 11,700 institutions and the industry currently employs 1.33m teachers. In order to reach the 50% target, the State Council proposes to enforce a one-year probation for classroom teaching and three years of work practice within the industry. However, many VET schools have indicated that they would not consider hiring fresh graduates for teaching positions. Further, there are currently around 70% of teachers from senior VET institutions (teaching high-school graduates) and 60% from junior VET schools (teaching year 9 graduates) who need to be retrained or replaced. Although the central government announced a significant investment of RMB 1.3 billion (USD188m) to retrain 144,000 VET teachers (which is an average of USD1,300 per person), it’s far from sufficient. The provincial government has also invested RMB 800 m (USD116m) in employing 44,000 part-time teachers from the industry (which is USD2,700 per person). VET students/Applied degree holders are encouraged to take a 1 + X model, where 1 refers to their diploma/degree, and X refers to industry training certificates, which can be multiple certificates at different levels. The central government also selected 100 universities and offered a total of RMB 100m (USD14m) to assist in converting applied courses.

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